Occupant Protection

In a general sense, injury may be viewed as the result of uncontrolled energy transfer. The primary goal of occupant protection, whatever the mechanisms of injury involved, is to reduce gross body motions and minimize the transfer of energy to the organs and bones.


Spit Testing Performed by Dr. Paver at BEI: Spit testing was performed with human volunteers to compare the effectiveness of seat belt pass-through v. cinching latch plates. Findings include:

1. Much less head excursion resulted with the cinching v. pass-through latch plate.

2. Cinching latch plate usage reduced volunteer head excursion by 53%, on average.

Ward CC, Der Avanessian H, Ward P, Paver JG, “Investigation of Restraint Function on Male and Female Occupants in Rollover Events,” SAE Paper #01B-109, International Congress and Exposition, March 2001.






Child Airbag Testing by Dr. Paver at BEI: Testing was performed with a human surrogate toe valuate out of position (OOP) child airbag injury patterns, mechanisms and tolerance.





Wonder Wheel: The first inverted living human vertical studies to be scientifically documented and reported. It was found that no head or neck injuries resulted from drops of up to 91 cm and velocities up to 4.2 m/sec for restrained occupants in the absence of roof crush.








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